- Corruption: Many African presidents have used their positions to enrich themselves and their supporters. This has allowed them to buy loyalty and silence dissent.
- Weak institutions: The institutions of government in many African countries are weak. This makes it difficult to hold presidents accountable and to prevent them from abusing their power.
- The use of force and intimidation: Some African presidents have used force and intimidation to stay in power. This includes suppressing dissent, rigging elections, and jailing or killing opponents.
- The culture of impunity: In many African countries, there is a culture of impunity, which means that people who commit crimes are not held accountable. This makes it easier for presidents to break the law and stay in power.
It is important to note that not all African presidents have been able to stay in power for long periods of time. There have been many cases of presidents being overthrown by popular uprisings or military coups. However, the factors listed above have made it more difficult for African citizens to remove their presidents from power.